|Courtesy of omgfacts.com|
Starting early of times the Greeks existed in sovereign communities separated from one another by the geography. At the future these communities were formed into CITY-STATES. The mountains stopped large-scale farming and stopped the Greeks to see beyond their limits to new lands where productive soil was more plentiful. The Greeks began to sail the seas to do commerce since very old times and reached the Pillars of Hercules, but the huge movement of growth of Greek people was between the 8th and 7th centuries B.C.E., increasing geographical knowledge.
These voyages that arranged the Greek colonization of Mediterranean part were real explorations. The outcome was essential for the knowledge of the whole Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea and the nearby area, into the core mountains of Asia and eastern Africa.
The extension of Alexander the Great’s empire started in 336 B.C.E., when he prospered his father to the power of Macedonia. After that, Alexander starting a military expansion with the purpose of winning the Persian area in Asia Minor and make Egypt free, turn out to be the emperor of a new big realm. At its highest extent, this kingdom concealed over 3,000 mi (4,828 km) from Greece to INDIA, surrounding Egypt and Persia, up to the river Indo. The center of this territory was Alexandria in Egypt, founded about 331 B.C.E.
Throughout army rallies, country by country, numerous teams of geographers, botanists, and other men of science gathered data and examples for Aristotle, the advisor of Alexander. As a historian saved the documentations of the journey, cartographers created maps that functioned as the foundation for the geography of Asia for decades. To manage his colony, Alexander approved a type of monarchy previously used in the Persian Empire, presenting in his court also some components like uniforms and customs from the Persian civilization. This type of government disagree with the dissimilar populations under Alexander’s power, and they rebelled.
Alexander tried to end these turbulences by announcing and inspiring the creation of a hegemony between different persons living in his empire. This plan died with its organizer, Alexander, beginning an age of war between his heirs and marked the starting of the fall of this kingdom. After 40 years of clash, the occupied territory was shared into three regions: Egypt went to the Ptolemys, the kingdom of Syria belong to the Seleucids, and the Antigonids got Macedon. These new realms, so-called Hellenistic, brought the Greek civilization into Asia and Egypt, making times of prosperity for all cheers to a large availability of valuable metals and many kinds of goods, mainly resources from the Persian War. New commerce lines were founded and in Alexandria, the biggest library of the early world was developed. The campaigns of Alexander in Libya and in Asia touched Turkestan and India, revealing many of new huge mountains and big deserts, the great rivers of India, and the Southern Ocean (sailed for the first time by the fleet of Nearco from the Indo to the Euphrates).